The most unpretentious begonias are root. They do not need to arrange a period of rest, like tuberous. However, root care requires year-round care. In winter they are fed, but less frequently than in summer; pruned in the spring. Regardless of the species, all begonias grow well and delight with their decorative effect at high humidity in combination with non-poured soil. In this connection, there are nuances of watering: as the soil dries, only in the pan, you can not spray the leaves. How to care for a flower correctly in order to grow it as beautiful as in the photo in flower magazines?
The origin of begonia and the distinguishing features
In nature, there are more than 1 thousand species of begonias. The largest number of varieties is in South America, Asia is second (India, Himalayas, Sri Lanka), and western Africa is third. There is an assumption that Africa is the birthplace of begonias, and from here they spread to Asia and America. In the wild, plants are found in humid subtropics and mountains.
The family was first described by the French botanist Charles Plumier. In 1683, he led an expedition to the islands of the Caribbean, led by the commander of the French colonies Michel Begon. There, the scientist discovered plants that were not known at that time, gave them a description and named after the organizer of the trip.
Begonias known today are very different from each other in size, shape, coloring of leaves and flowers. Some relate to perennial, others to annual. There are grassy and shrub begonias, with creeping or thickened rhizomes. But there is a common thing that unites these plants into one family.
Characteristic features of begonias:
- in all species, begonias are asymmetric, oblique leaf;
- flowers - monoecious;
- perianth - brightly colored, uneven;
- the fruit with seeds looks like a box;
- all begonias grow in approximately the same natural conditions: diffused sunlight, high humidity, temperature + 13 ... +22 ⁰C.
Video: a wealth of species and colors of the flower
Begonias - flowers for apartments, gardens and offices
As a decorative culture, begonia has been developing since 1856, when breeders began to create its hybrids. Large-flowering tuberous varieties appeared, the most famous were bred in Belgium. Keeping these plants at home is not too difficult, otherwise they would not have been so popular. Begonias are grown in open ground and on window sills, they are used for landscaping residential premises and offices, in compositions and separately. Flowers are planted in baskets and flowerpots to decorate walls, furniture, and also used as ground cover plants. Everblooming varieties are suitable for any flower gardens, even carpet. Tuberous varieties are grown on balconies, verandas, in closed courtyards.
Home care has its own nuances, for example, tuber needs a rest period. All begonias love moist air, but do not tolerate moist soil. However, any beginner grower can grow this plant. After all, if something went wrong, and the begonia began to dry out, you can take a stalk or leaf and begin to grow begonia again taking into account past mistakes. The culture is able to multiply even by a piece of leaf, which very quickly turns back into a lush and beautiful houseplant.
Varieties of root begonias
The main difference between the species is constant flowering. In the summer you can plant such a plant in the garden, in the winter take it into the house, and everywhere it will bloom all year round. These are perennial herbaceous begonias. Outside signs, in addition to constant flowering, are rounded leaves and a small height: tall - up to 36 cm, undersized - from 8 cm. Many varieties with green or burgundy leaves, white, yellow, pink or coral flowers, which, in turn, are grown Terry (in the form of roses) or simple.
Examples of plants in the photo
- Bada Bing WHITE
- Bada bing rose
- Bada Bing Scarlet
- Accord Purple
- Terry Storyteller
Indoor grassy begonias bloom in early spring and fully justify their name. Flowers are painted in different shades of red, and the stalks branched and hanging under the weight of the buds are very similar to corals. The leaves also look romantic: elongated, matte, with specks, cloves at the edges resemble the wings of angels. The most spectacular begonias look in pots on coasters. In leaving very unpretentious. Bush height - up to 90 cm.
The species is famous for its decorative leaves, and the flowers of deciduous begonias are small and inconspicuous. Often these are non-flowering perennials. They differ from other types of moodiness. So, leafy ones cannot be kept in the open air, that is, these begonias love greenhouse conditions, high humidity, scattered light. In the country or on the open balcony they will die. The main sign of the species is large (15-20 cm) and beautiful leaves. They can be decorated with colored pearl spots, exquisite patterns, contrasting colors, silver sheen or pearly shimmer. The stems are downy, the back of the leaf usually has a red tint.
Photo Gallery: Deciduous begonias
- Begonia Royal
- Begonia rex
- Begonia Metallica
- Begonia Credneri
- Alba picta
Varieties of tuberous begonias
These begonias are grown in shady corners of the garden or on balconies. Their flowers are very beautiful, depending on the variety, they are similar to a rose, clove, daffodil, peony, camellia. The stems are fleshy, translucent; leaves are asymmetric, heart-shaped. Hiding under the ground is a rhizome that has grown in the form of a tuber. In the open ground, begonias bloom from June to September, and in the room from spring to December, then a rest period begins. The ground part dries up, and the tuber is stored until the next season.
Photo Gallery: Tuberous begonias
- Begonia Summer at Peterhof
- Go-go pink
- Tigantea Flora Captive
- Diantiflora Captivity
- Crispa Marginata
Elatior or Begonia hybrid
Hybrid begonias were bred in England by crossing two species: the root Socotran (from Socotra Island in the Indian Ocean) and tuberous. The result was a very beautiful plant, similar to a tuber, but with the usual root. It blooms in winter. Due to the compactness of the bush and the abundance of flowers, closely spaced in several tiers, this begonia is called a "bouquet in a pot." With good care, Elator blooms not only in winter, but almost continuously, for several months in a row. The most famous varieties are: Elatior Borias, pleasing with pink terry flowers with a white edging, and Elatior Baladin with flowers in different shades of pink: from white to red.
Photo Gallery: Begonia Elator
- Elatior Borias
- Elator Baladin
- Elator mix
Another type of luxurious indoor plants, the popularity of which has been growing in recent years. This group includes both root, and tuber, and hybrids. They are united by one sign - hanging shoots, strewn with flowers of various shapes and colors: white, yellow, red, orange, pink. Bright asymmetric foliage also looks spectacular. Ampel varieties are planted in balcony boxes, flowerpots, high flowerpots.
Photo Gallery: Ampel begonias
- Fire cascade
- Begonia Venus
- Begonia Margarita
- Begonia Aphrodite
- Begonia bell
Begonia conditions depending on season - table
|Season||Top dressing||Lighting (always diffused, partial shade)||Watering||Temperature|
|Spring||1 time in 2 weeks||keep on the north window||moderate, into the pallet when the soil dries to a depth of 1-2 cm||+ 17 ... +25 ⁰C|
|Summer||Once a week|
|Autumn||1 time in 2 weeks||rearrange to west or east window||room, not lower than + 13 ... +15 ⁰C|
|Winter||1 time per month|
In such conditions, root begonias will bloom all year round or for many months (depending on the variety). For tuberous begonias, this table is only partially suitable. In the autumn they are cut off and cleaned for the winter in a dark and cool place (+12 ⁰C). Watered once a month, only slightly moistening a strip of soil along the edge of the pot. At the end of February they put it on the window, begin to water and feed, like all other flowering varieties.
Video: Tuberous begonias: dormancy and growing
In Europe and the USA, it is customary to buy blooming begonia, and after it fades - throw it away. But for Russians this option is not suitable, we like to transplant, feed, change pots. Begonias are transplanted in the spring, it is in this season and you need to buy them. Without transplanting into the nutrient soil, purchased begonia will soon die. Indeed, in the store version, the soil is peat, and the plant lives off of nutrient solutions. Therefore, immediately after the purchase, begonia needs to be transplanted.
In the same place in the store along with the flower you need to purchase:
- drainage (expanded clay pebbles);
- soil (for begonias, violets or universal for flowering crops based on peat);
- perlite, or vermiculite, or sphagnum moss (for additional loosening of the soil, but not necessary);
- a pot 3-4 cm wider and deeper than the one in which begonia is sold; Mandatory: drain pan and drainage holes.
From excess water in the pot, begonias rot their roots, the flower dies. Therefore, the soil needs loose, breathable, water in it should not stagnate. In addition, begonias love acidic and fertile soil. It is not recommended to take soil at home, in the country or in the forest. Such land is almost always infected with diseases and insects, and its acidity is unknown.
Photo Gallery: What you need for a begonia transplant
- Drainage is necessary for root respiration.
- Perlite serves as an additional baking powder
- Vermiculite is used instead of perlite or sphagnum to loosen the soil.
- Sphagnum moss along with perlite and vermiculite additionally loosens the soil
- Ready ground for begonias. If not, a violet soil mixture is suitable
- Universal soil for flower crops
- The new pot must be sized to fit the old
Begonia transplant stages:
- Take a new pot and pour 2-3 cm of drainage into it.
- If there is an additional baking powder (sphagnum, perlite, vermiculite), then add a few spoons to the pot (depending on the size of the pot and begonia).
- Remove the begonia from the old pot, shake off the peat or soil from the roots a little.
- Set the flower so that it is at the same depth and fall asleep with fresh soil.
Video: How to transplant begonia
After transplanting home rather than shop begonias that wintered in the apartment, a cardinal pruning of the bush is necessary. Remove all shoots, leaving three to four. In some varieties, only one stem grows, so you do not have to remove the excess, you just need to shorten it. Strongly elongated bare stems with leaves on the crown, cut to a third. After that, the lower sleeping buds will wake up, and young shoots will also begin to grow. As a result, a lush bush will grow again.
The upper dried layer is loosened. And only when the earth dries to a depth of 1-2 cm, you can pour into the pan. The ideal way is to put the pot in a container of water until the earth is fully saturated. Then the pot is returned to the pan, the excess water flowing into it is drained. The frequency of watering depends on the conditions in which begonia is found: on a sunny window, open balcony, in the garden. In the open air they watered every day, in an apartment, on a shady, closed balcony - every 2-3 days. The reference should be the condition of the soil. Water must be softened. To do this, it is filtered, defended.
Water for irrigation of begonias can be softened and made acidic using peat: 1 kg of peat in a fabric or gauze bag is infused for 10 days with 10 liters of water.
In addition, begonia is demanding on air humidity, but its leaves can not be sprayed. There are several ways to more gentle moisturizing: put cups of water next to the flower or pour sand, peat, expanded clay, moss in the pan and always keep this filler moist. In winter, put a damp cloth on the nearest heating battery.
Even evergreen begonias respond to changing seasons. In autumn and winter, it becomes darker and cooler on the windowsills. The plant slows down growth. If you feed it during this period, then the stems will stretch very much, the leaves will become tender and sensitive to diseases and pests. Therefore, begonias are often fed in the summer, and once a month in the winter.
The frequency of dressing, depending on the season - table
|Summer||every week||Blooming begonias: Fertimix (1.5 caps per 1 liter of water), Fertika Lux (20 g per 10 l), Energen (2 ml per 1 l) or other complex fertilizer for flowering.|
Leaf begonias: Mr. Color Universal or Ficus (1.5 caps per 1 liter of water), Novofert (4 g per 2 liters of water), etc.
|Spring and fall||once in two weeks|
|Winter||once a month|
Video: How to care for begonias
Why is begonia not blooming?
This question will never arise with a grower who follows all the above rules. If begonia has all the conditions: scattered light, watering without waterlogging and drying out the roots, the right temperature, regular top dressing, then it will bloom exactly as much and even longer than the variety should. That is, ever-flowering flowers are decorated all year round, Elator - in winter, all other varieties begin to bloom in spring throughout the summer.
If only one nuance. Begonias are not long-livers, they delight with beautiful foliage and abundant flowering for only 2-3 years, and then you need to take a stalk or leaf and plant a new begonia. The old one will not grow anymore and will not bloom.
- Cut the stem with a tip 6-10 cm long.
- Powder the cutting area with crushed wood, activated carbon or ash.
- Plant in a moist loose soil for begonias and cover with a jar.
- Water when drying the soil into the pan, like a regular begonia.
- With a favorable outcome, the stalk will take root and will grow in 2-4 weeks.
- Gradually accustom the plant to the air in the room. You can put a peg under the neck of the can, so that at first only aerate the mini-greenhouse, and after 2-3 days completely remove the can.
- If the stalk is dry or rotten, repeat the experiment with another stalk.
In this way, all begonias that have stems can be propagated.
- Cut a healthy leaf with a sharp knife near the cuttings.
- Put a leaf in activated carbon water (1 tablet per glass of water).
- If the petiole begins to rot, you need to cut to a healthy place and change the water.
- As soon as young roots are formed, plant in a permanent pot.
- When a new begonia begins to grow, the leaf will dry.
The method is good for begonias with small leaves. Large ones take root very poorly, because they need a lot of food, and young roots can not cope with this task. Therefore, begonias with large leaves are propagated by leaf segments.
Part of the sheet
- The leaf is cut into segments in the direction from the central vein to the edges. Each segment should have 1-3 veins.
- Lay out pieces of the sheet on top of wet sand or peat, you can stick them into the ground with a slice down.
- Cover with a plastic bag or plant each segment in a separate container and cover with jars.
- Keep the soil moist.
- The first sprouts can appear in 1-3 months.
- Gradually accustom begonia to the air in the apartment and remove the shelter.
- Make cuts across the central vein and the thickest veins.
- Spread leaf over wet begonias.
- Press with pebbles.
- Cover the pot with foil and put in the same place where adult begonias grow.
- Keep the soil moist.
- When sprouts appear, gradually remove the shelter.
Tuberous begonia is also best propagated by cuttings or leaves. Manipulations with tubers are very risky, you can lose the whole plant.
- At the end of February, after a period of rest, remove the tuber from the pot.
- If there are children, separate them and put each in a separate pot.
- If there are shoots on the tuber, they divide it with a sharp knife so that each segment is with a shoot.
- Slices are dusted with charcoal or ash.
- Deepen the tuber slices in half (sprouts up, slices down).
- Cover with a jar, keep the soil moist.
- When the stems grow 7 cm long, bury the tuber completely.
Against the background of the fact that begonias reproduce well vegetatively, growing from seeds is an illogical solution. However, flower growers also use this method if neither at home nor acquaintances have the right variety. Then you can buy seeds in a store or from breeders and try to grow a gorgeous flower from the smallest seed. Sowing seeds is done in December-January, so that begonias bloomed by spring-summer.
- Spread the seeds on the surface of wet begonias or in peat tablets. Press the seeds to the ground, but do not bury.
- Arrange a mini greenhouse: cover with foil, place in a disposable container with a lid, etc.
- After 2 weeks, if the soil does not dry out and is not wet, seedlings will appear.
- Transfer seedlings to the brightest window or fill up with lamps. Gradually remove the shelter.
- When 2-3 true leaflets appear, each plant can be transplanted into a pot.
Video: Begonia propagation by seeds
Begonia Diseases - Table
|Disease||Symptoms||Prevention and treatment|
|Powdery mildew||Brown spots appear on the leaves, which are subsequently covered with a white powdery coating. The disease develops in a room where it is too warm and dry.|
|Vascular bacteriosis||The edges of the leaves turn yellow and dry. The middle of the leaf remains green, but the veins turn black.||Cut the damaged leaves, spray the begonia with a fungicide: Albit (1 ml per 10 liters of water), Maxim (5-6 drops per glass of water), etc.|
|Gray rot||Sticky gray spots appear on the leaves. Over time, the leaves rot, and then the stem.||Reduce watering and humidity, treat with 1% solution of Fundazol or Euparen.|
Photo Gallery: Begonia Diseases
- Powdery mildew: leaves covered with a flour-like coating
- Gray rot develops with excess moisture and low temperatures
- With vascular bacteriosis, the edges of the leaves dry out, then the veins blacken
Begonia pests - table
|Pest||Description||Ways to fight|
|Spider mite||The leaves turn yellow, dry out. On the reverse side, a cobweb with very small ticks is noticeable.||To process with solutions of preparations: Actellik (2 ml per 1 liter of water), Bona Forte (ready-made spray)|
|Shield||A small brown insect (5 mm) is covered with a wax coating, like a shell. It feeds on plant juices. Leaflets become shiny and sticky over time.||Treat with Actelik or Actara (1 g per 1 liter of water). If scabs are few, you can wash them off with a sponge and soapy water.|
Photo Gallery: Pest Begonia
Consequences of Improper Begonia Care - Table
|Problem||Cause||How to fix|
|White or yellow, drying out over time, spots on the leaves.||Sunburn||Move to a shady place.|
|The stems are elongated, the leaves are small and pale.||Lack of light||Rearrange to a more illuminated windowsill, but not in direct sunlight.|
|Leaves and stems rot.||Waterlogging||You can save by replanting in dry soil. Water only when the topsoil is dry and only below.|
|Leaves fade, dry around the edges, the bush falls apart.||Insufficient watering||Do not skip irrigation, completely soak a lump of land.|
|The leaves are small, the plant does not develop, does not bloom or forms few flowers.||Not enough food||Plant only in soil suitable for begonias. Regularly feed complex fertilizers.|
Photo Gallery: Consequences of Improper Begonia Care
- Burns on leaves from direct sunlight
- Begonias do not have enough light: the stems are stretched, the leaves lose their bright color
- With excessive soil moisture, roots, stems and leaves rot
- Without watering, begonia withers, the bush falls apart
- The leaves are smaller, the plant does not develop - begonia needs to be fed
Although begonia is demanding in care, this is the plant on which beginners can learn. If you make a mistake and the flower dies, you can always cut a stalk or leaf and grow a new begonia. But even with proper care, these plants do not live long. After 2-3 years of active growth, decorative properties are lost: the stems are exposed, the leaves become small, dry, the begonia does not bloom. Rejuvenation or planting of a new young plant is required.