Clusia - perennial evergreen shrubs and shrubs that grow in the tropical and subtropical regions of North and South America. Tourists like to leave inscriptions on the leaves of clusia, in the future they are scarred and stored for a long time. In the homeland, clusius forms trees several meters high, and in our latitudes there are large and miniature varieties for growing bonsai. The plant pleases with lush greenery, beautiful flowers and amazing fruit-stars.
Named after the Dutch scientist Carlus Clusius, Clusius is a separate Clusian family. Among the numerous varieties, there are clots growing in the soil and epiphytic forms. The root system has a branched character, the main roots gradually become wooden and occupy a large area under the ground. New plants may form from sprawling roots.
The stems branch strongly from the base and along the entire length. The plant has a greenish young shoot, which is gradually covered with a light brown bark. Clusia milky juice has long been used for various purposes. He served to fasten parts in shipbuilding, and also helped get rid of corns and other ailments.
Dense leathery leaves have a short petiole and are located on the stems again. The surface of the leaf plate is smooth, bright green. Leaves have an oval or lanceolate shape with a solid edge and a pointed end. The length of each leaf can be from 8 to 20 cm, and the width is 5-8 cm. Varieties with small foliage are found.
Clusia flower is interesting, its petals are slightly thickened and as if covered with a waxy coating. In the natural environment, flowering continues throughout the year. The buds open at night and fold in the morning. Each bud consists of 4-9 rounded petals, painted white with pink or yellow stains. The diameter of each flower is 4-5 cm.
After pollination, the fruit ripens in place of the bud. When closed, it resembles a rounded poppy box covered with light green skin. The diameter of the fruit is 5-8 cm. As it ripens, the skin becomes dark brown, and the fruit opens in the shape of a star. Inside, red pulp and lots of seeds are found. The fruits of the clot are inedible, juice in contact with skin can cause irritation.
The family has more than 150 varieties, but there are not so many cluses that can be kept at home.
Clusia pink (rosea) - the most popular type. This is a tall shrub or low tree with strong shoots and elastic foliage. Fleshy leaves are located on shortened petioles and have a round or rhomboid shape. The maximum length and width of the foliage is 20 cm. The color of the sheet plates is solid, dark green. When young stems are damaged, a yellowish-green milky juice is formed, which, upon drying, becomes transparent. Single flowers appear on young apical shoots. Their petals are painted white or pink, and the core has a bright yellow color. The diameter of each flower is 8 cm.
Clusius lanceolate forms a branched shrub or small tree up to 3 m high. The length of lanceolate leathery leaves is 7-8 cm. Each flower consists of 4-8 rounded petals and reaches a diameter of 5 cm. Closer to the core, the flowers are painted red or burgundy, and the edges retain white color.
Clusius is big forms large shrubs up to 3 m high and 1.2 m wide. Oval or obovate leaves 8-18 cm long are attached to the stem by short, thick petioles. Flowers on young shoots are collected in small inflorescences of 3-5 pieces. The diameter of each white or cream flower is 5-8 cm.
Clusia is best propagated vegetatively, using layering and rooting of apical cuttings. Chopped stems about 15-20 cm long are rooted in water or moist sandy-peaty soil. It is recommended to treat their base with a stimulating solution (root, heteroauxin). During the rooting period, the plant needs a room with warm and humid air. It is necessary to maintain the temperature not lower than + 25 ° C. Rooting can last about a month.
Aerial roots are formed along the entire length of the stems of an adult clot. They serve to get nutrients from the air and join other trees. Upon contact with the bark or fertile soil, filiform roots begin to grow and acquire a denser structure. After the growth of the rhizome, you can cut off the shoot and transplant into a separate pot.
Seed propagation is very laborious and ineffective. Seeds quickly lose their germination, so sowing is carried out immediately after collection in a wet mixture of peat and sand. The plant needs to maintain high soil temperature and air humidity. The container is covered with a film and left in a bright place. Within 4-6 weeks, rare shoots appear. They are aired daily, but kept under a film until 4 real leaves appear and only then they are very carefully accustomed to the natural environment.
To care for clusia at home was not too difficult, you need to immediately choose the right place for it. It is better to acquire clusia in the spring, then the process of transportation, transplantation and adaptation will pass almost imperceptibly. For planting, choose light fertile soil. You can use a mixture of the following components:
- leaf soil;
- coniferous soil.
At the bottom of the tank lay a drainage layer. The pot is selected by size or with a small margin. Each transplant is a great stress for Clusia, so this procedure is often not recommended. If possible, use the transshipment method while preserving the old earthen coma.
Clusius needs a long daylight and diffused light. It is best to place it at some distance from the window or use the western and eastern window sills. In winter, lamp illumination is recommended. The bush needs a constant air temperature of + 20 ... + 25 ° C. In the summer, in the absence of significant night cooling, it is recommended to take out the pots on the street. Choose places without drafts.
Clusia prefers moist air and well perceives spraying with warm, settled water. Water the plant often, but in small portions. Drying of the upper half of the soil is allowed, but stagnation of moisture is unacceptable.
From April to October, clusia needs fertilizer. You can use universal mineral dressings. A healthy plant needs only half the dose of fertilizer added to the water for irrigation. In winter, there is no need to fertilize the bushes, watering is also reduced.
In the spring, it is recommended to cut dried branches and pinch the tips of the shoots. Moderate pruning is easy to carry and allows you to form an attractive crown.
Clusia is resistant to most pests and diseases. The main problems are related to improper care. With a lack of light, clusia leaves turn yellow and fall. Correct the situation will help additional lighting.
With excessive watering, a whitish fungal coating forms on the soil surface. It can spread to roots with terrestrial shoots and lead to decay of the plant. The soil should be regularly dried and loosened, and damaged areas completely removed.
In hot and dry weather, traces of a spider mite, scutellum, or mealybug can be found on clots. To control pests, it is better to immediately use insecticides.