Nandina is a bright and variable plant of the Barberry family. It forms a lush bush or small tree and pleases with reddish foliage, pink flowers and bunches of red berries. The nandin plant is common in the foothills of Japan, China and the western United States. Caring for it requires considerable effort, and not every grower dares to have such a capricious inhabitant at home. However, the unique beauty attracts the attention of households and guests.
Nandina is an evergreen shrub or tree. Under natural conditions, its height can be about 4 m, but the indoor variety will not exceed a meter height. The stems branch from the base and form a small number of lateral processes. The bark of lignified shoots is painted in light brown with a purple tint. Embossed longitudinal strips are visible on the branches.
The cylindrical crown consists of ovoid, slightly twisted at the end of the leaves. On each petiole up to 40 cm long there are 7 unpaired leaflets. The length of the sheet plate is about 10 cm, and the width is 2.5 cm. The leaves are leathery, whole-edge, with a pointed end. In spring, young leaves turn pink, by summer they turn bright green, and closer to fall they turn purple or orange.
In the first half of summer, the nandina is covered with many panicle inflorescences. The length of each peduncle is 20-40 cm, the flowers are evenly distributed over almost the entire surface of the stem. White lanceolate petals strongly bent back. The core consists of protruding bright yellow stamens and one pestle. The diameter of the flower is 6 mm.
After flowering is completed, scarlet round berries with a diameter of about 8 mm are formed. Berries ripen in late September or October. It should be remembered that the fruits and other parts of the plant are very poisonous. After contact with them, you need to wash your hands well. Animals and small children must not be allowed to the Nandin.
Varieties of nandins
In nature, there is only homemade nandina, to diversify this delicate and beautiful plant, breeders have bred several decorative varieties:
- Nandina Richmond - in the fall foliage becomes bright red;Nandina Richmond
- Nandina Strength of Fire - a dwarf variety, suitable for creating bonsai, also has red foliage;Nandina fire power
- Nandina Nana Purpurea - at the end of summer, the leaves begin to stain in a rich purple or raspberry shade;Nandina Nana Purpurea
- Nandina Harbor Dwarf - medium-sized shrub (80-100 cm) with wrinkled leaves of bright red color in spring and autumn;Nandina Harbor Dwarf
- Nandina Alba - has snow-white fruits;Nandina Alba
- Nandina is gorgeous - forms a spherical bush with elongated foliage framed by a red border.Nandina is gorgeous
As you can see, even the only variety after the work of nerds can become a real decoration of a house or a greenhouse. You can buy nandin in many large flower shops today.
The cultivation of nandins occurs by sowing seeds or rooting cuttings. Seeds are harvested in the fall, freed from the pulp and dried. They retain viability for up to three years. First, seedlings are grown in a small greenhouse. Light, peaty soil is poured into the bowl and slightly moistened. Seeds are deepened by 1.5 cm. The container is covered with a film and left in a warm place (+ 23 ... + 25 ° C). Before emergence, light is not necessary. Seeds germinate within 7-10 days. With the advent of the fourth true leaf, seedlings are transplanted into separate pots with soil for adult plants.
Rooting of apical cuttings gives a good result. Young shoots 8-15 cm long are cut. The lower pair of leaves is removed and the cut is treated with a stimulator for root growth. Cuttings are planted in a greenhouse until rooting and regularly ventilated. The optimum temperature is + 15 ... + 20 ° C. It is possible to transplant rooted seedlings in 1.5-3 months.
Nandina gives basal processes that can be separated during transplantation. Strong wood is cut with sharp gardening tools and the young shoot is transplanted to a new place. Such specimens are characterized by good viability and may bloom the very next year.
Nandina - easy to care for, just pick a suitable place for her. It is grown as a houseplant, and in the subtropical regions of the nandinus in the garden it is very capable of wintering without shelter. Even indoor copies are recommended to be taken outside in the summer. The optimum temperature in summer is + 20 ... + 23 ° C. In winter, you need to move the bush to a cool room where the air temperature will be + 10 ... + 12 ° C. Without such a wintering, the nandina begins to hurt and loses attractiveness.
The plant loves bright diffused light, but needs protection from direct sunlight. It is placed at some distance from the window in the southern and eastern rooms or under the shade of other trees in the garden. In order for the nandina in the photo to please with bright reddish foliage, she needs bright rooms and a long daylight hours.
For planting, small, deep pots with drainage holes and a layer of expanded clay at the bottom are used. The soil is selected slightly acidic or neutral. You can make a mixture yourself from the following components:
- river sand;
- leaf soil;
- soddy soil.
Rhizome grows rapidly, so a transplant is needed annually or every 2 years. The base of the stem and part of the roots are placed on the surface without deepening.
Nandina needs abundant watering, as foliage actively evaporates moisture. Between watering, only the surface of the soil should dry out, otherwise the leaves will crumble. With a decrease in ambient temperature, watering is reduced. Irrigation water is better to take purified or well-maintained.
In order for the lush crown to remain attractive, the air humidity should be at least 70%. The leaves are sprayed 2 times a day, and next to the pots are placed pallets with wet pebbles or expanded clay. You can use a humidifier.
From April to the end of autumn, nandins are fed with organic and universal mineral complex. Top dressing alternate and apply twice a month.
Nandins do not have highly branched stems, so pinching the tops for branching is useless. Every 2-3 years, it is recommended to prune most of the branches so that young shoots form, otherwise the bushes will stretch out and lose their decorative effect. To give the plant a bonsai shape, side stems and lower leaves are removed. The shape after trimming lasts for several months.
Nandina can be attacked by scale insects, aphids, spider mites and a nematode. You can treat the vegetation with a soapy solution, but modern insecticides give the best effect.
Excessive watering may cause root rot. Soil replacement and root treatment with fungicides will help to cope with the problem.