A dangerous fungal infection that affects plants and tomato fruits is cladosporiosis. This disease is dangerous for cucumbers, carrots, berry crops.
Causes the formation of brown spots on the leaves. They begin to fight the disease at the first sign of damage. So it is possible to localize the development of fungal disease. Compliance with agricultural techniques for growing tomatoes, preventive measures prevent the mass death of tomatoes.
Cladosporiosis or brown spotting of tomatoes
A rapidly spreading fungal disease affects leaf plates of plants, flower brushes, ovaries, and ripening fruits. Brown spots form at the spore distribution sites. Because of them, cladosporiosis is called brown spotting. It rarely affects stems, spilled tomatoes, mainly develops on foliage. Light green spots of irregular shape appear on the bottom of the plate, then they begin to darken.
First, from below, then darkening, similar to rust, appears on the upper part of the sheet plate. Under favorable conditions, the disease spreads rapidly, in a few days the plant can become completely covered with spots.
The leaves will begin to turn yellow, the bush will discard the resulting ovaries due to lack of nutrition. The disease often affects tomatoes growing indoors.
Varieties of tomatoes resistant to cladosporiosis
Selection work is constantly being carried out to develop varieties resistant to the defeat of cadadosporiosis. The most successful breeding varieties of tomatoes for covered ground (greenhouses, greenhouses, film shelters):
- pink Pink Paradise F1;
- red high-yielding Spartak F1;
- small-fruited Opera F1;
- cold-resistant Charisma F1;
- fleshy Lemon Fight F1;
- tall Marissa F1;
- stunted short, not requiring the formation of a bush Bohemia F1 for hotbeds.
Breeders also create hybrid varieties that are not affected by this disease for outdoor cultivation. It should be borne in mind that seed hybrids can inherit the characteristics of the variety on the basis of which it was bred. For breeding, purchased seeds are purchased annually, since not all of them inherit positive qualities after home collection.
Hybrids for open ground with a short growing season:
- early ripe: Fast and the Furious F1, cold-resistant Olya F1;
- precocious: stunted Red Arrow F1, large-fruited Ural F1;
- Mid-range: Titanic F1, standard Space Star F1;
- mid-season: unpretentious Nasha Masha F1, yellow with melon taste Khrustik F1, zoned Vologda F1.
There are several selection tomatoes from which you can collect seeds for planting: Paradise pleasure, Giant, Red Comet, Raisa, Eupator, Funtik, Vezha.
Signs of illness
In order to preserve the tomato crop, it is important to recognize an insidious disease in time. When hot days occur, you need to regularly inspect the plants, pay attention to the back of the leaf. The disease often appears in the phase of active growth, during the flowering period. Sometimes spots appear on seedlings grown at home - spores get into the soil.
Signs of the disease:
- gray dots appear on the lower side of the sheet plate, resembling rot outwardly, above them the upper part of the sheet brightens;
- first, the lower part of the plant is affected, cladosporiosis develops in the ascending one;
- dark spots appear, the leaves curl.
At the last stage, dark brown spots capture the entire part of the leaf, spread to the fruits, they become soft at the lesion sites.
Causes of the disease of cladosporiosis
Pathogenic spores are carried with the flow of air, water. Spotting is characteristic of cucumbers, carrots, strawberries, fruit trees. It is impossible to protect themselves from them in a greenhouse or greenhouse. Disputes may be contained on clothing, garden tools, tools. After getting on the leaf, the fungal culture sprouts, feeds on the plant cells. Conidia are formed on the leaf, they remain viable for up to 10 months, winter well.
Favorable conditions for the spread of fungal infection: humidity in the region of 80%, temperature above +22 ° C. The fungus constantly mutates, is able to infect disease-resistant cultures.
Treatment of tomatoes for cladosporiosis
Tomato treatment begins at the first sign of a disease. Protection methods are chosen from the degree of damage. First, non-toxic folk and biological agents are used. If such treatment does not produce results, resort to the use of chemistry. Before processing, the harvest is harvested, the fruits of ripeness rip off. After chemicals, plants remain toxic for 10 days.
In case of serious injuries, treatment of plants with universal fungicides with a wide spectrum of action is effective, these are Abiga-Peak, Bravo, Kaptan, NeoTek, Polyram, Polychom, Polycarbacin, HOM, Tsineb preparations. The drug is diluted according to the instructions, two treatments are carried out with a weekly interval. Do not neglect personal protective equipment: it is advisable to wear gloves, a respirator. For prophylactic purposes, poisonous fungicides are not used. Tomatoes growing in open ground are sprayed in the evening, during a period of low activity of bees, in calm, dry weather.
Means based on plant components, bacteria, fungal spores are harmless to insects, do not contain dangerous toxins. To combat cladosporiosis apply: Pseudobacterin-2, Strobi, Trichodermin, Fitolavin 300, Fitosporin, Effekton-O. The drugs are used for prophylactic purposes under favorable conditions for the reproduction of the disease.
For preventive purposes, regular serum spraying is carried out, it is diluted with water 1:10. The spread of the disease is prevented by treatment with household disinfectant solutions.
At the stage of white spots, regular treatment with iodine solution helps: 15-20 drops are diluted in five liters of water with the addition of 500 ml of milk for better adhesion of the liquid to the leaves. For foliar feeding, add 15 mg of calcium chloride.
An alkaline solution of wood ash prevents the growth of fungi: 300 g is added to 1 liter of water, the solution is boiled for 10-15 minutes. To prepare the working solution, the volume of water is adjusted to 10 liters. The solution enriches plants with potassium. A pinkish potassium permanganate solution has a similar effect. Processing is carried out in the morning and in the evening until the signs of cladosporiosis disappear completely.
Land cultivation after a disease
The best option is to mulch the soil after irrigation. With a massive defeat of tomatoes, the soil is shed with solutions of biological fungicides. Phytosporin is effective in dry form: they dust the ground around tomatoes.
Mr. Dachnik advises: measures to prevent the disease cladosporiosis
The best prevention is the annual autumn disinfection. After harvesting, it is imperative that the greenhouse, work tools, tools, and trellis are treated with Bordeaux liquid: a solution of vitriol and chalk. By the way, vitriol is first dissolved in a small volume of hot water, then introduced into the working solution.
For planting seedlings using spilled boiling water soil. All plant residues are burned; they are not used for composting. Effectively fumigating empty greenhouses, grayhouses gray. Smoke penetrates the most inaccessible places.
It is important not to thicken the landing. During the pouring period, the fruits are sanitized: they are removed before the first brush, and yellowed parts are cut. It is important to follow the irrigation tactics: water is fed in a thin stream into the trunk circle, absorbed gradually.
Humidity increases slightly with this water supply. In rainy weather, you need to moderate watering, reduce it to a minimum. With an excess of nitrogen fertilizers, a large mass of leaves is formed. Top dressing should be comprehensive, balanced. For cultivation, it is better to choose tomato varieties that are resistant to fungal infections.